Analysis, Inquiry, and Design: ENGINEERING DESIGN
Key Idea 1:
Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization (finding the best solution within given constraints); this process is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints. (Note: The design process could apply to activities from simple investigations to long-term projects.)
Describe objects, imaginary or real, that might be modeled or made differently and suggest ways in which the objects can be changed, fixed, or improved
Investigate prior solutions and ideas from books, magazines, family, friends, neighbors, and community members
Generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices
Plan and build, under supervision, a model of the solution using familiar materials, processes, and hand tools
Discuss how best to test the solution; perform the test under teacher supervision; record and portray results through numerical and graphic means; discuss orally why things worked or didn't work; and summarize results in writing, suggesting ways to make the solution better
Identify needs and opportunities for technical solutions from an investigation of situations of general or social interest.
Identify a scientific or human need that is subject to a technological solution which applies scientific principles
Locate and utilize a range of printed, electronic, and human information resources to obtain ideas.
Use all available information systems for a preliminary search that addresses the need.
Consider constraints and generate several ideas for alternative solutions, using group and individual ideation techniques (group discussion, brainstorming, forced connections, role play); defer judgment until a number of ideas have been generated; evaluate (critique) ideas; and explain why the chosen solution is optimal.
Generate ideas for alternative solutions
Evaluate alternatives based on the constraints of design
Develop plans, including drawings with measurements and details of construction, and construct a model of the solution, exhibiting a degree of craftsmanship.
Design and construct a model of the product or process
Construct a model of the product or process
In a group setting, test their solution against design specifications, present and evaluate results, describe how the solution might have been modified for different or better results, and discuss trade-offs that might have to be made.
Test a design
Evaluate a design
Initiate and carry out a thorough investigation of an unfamiliar situation and identify needs and opportunities for technological invention or innovation
identify, locate, and use a wide range of information resources including subject experts, library references, magazines, videotapes, films, electronic data bases and online services, and discuss and document through notes and sketches how findings relate to the problem
generate creative solution ideas, break ideas into the significant functional elements, and explore possible refinements; predict possible outcomes using mathematical and functional modeling techniques; choose the optimal solution to the problem, clearly documenting ideas against design criteria and constraints; and explain how human values, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations have influenced the solution
develop work schedules and plans which include optimal use and cost of materials, processes, time, and expertise; construct a model of the solution, incorporating developmental modifications while working to a high degree of quality (craftsmanship)
in a group setting, devise a test of the solution relative to the design criteria and perform the test; record, portray, and logically evaluate performance test results through quanitative, graphic, and verbal means; and use a variety of creative verbal and graphic techniques effectively and persuasively to present conclusions, predict impacts and new problems, and suggest and pursue modifications
Key Idea 1:
Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning.
Use computer technology,traditional paper-based resources,and interpersonal discussions to learn, do, and share science in the classroom
Select appropriate hardware and software that aids in wordprocessing, creating databases, telecommunications, graphing, data display, and other tasks
Use information technology to link the classroom to world events
Use a range of equipment and software to integrate several forms of information in
order to create good-quality audio, video, graphic, and text-based presentations.
Use spreadsheets and database software to collect, process, display, and analyze information. Students access needed information from electronic databases and on-line telecommunication services.
Systematically obtain accurate and relevant information pertaining to a particular topic from a range of sources, including local and national media, libraries, muse- ums, governmental agencies, industries, and individuals.
Collect data from probes to measure events and phenomena.
Collect the data, using the appropriate, available tool
Organize the data
Use the collected data to communicate a scientific concept
Use simple modeling programs to make predictions.
Understand and use the more advanced features of word processing, spreadsheets,
and database software.
Prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and
purpose. (Note: Multimedia may include posters, slides, images, presentation software, etc.)
Extend knowledge of physical phenomena through independent investigation,
e.g., literature review, electronic resources, library research
Use appropriate technology to gather experimental data, develop models,and
Access, select, collate, and analyze information obtained from a wide range of
sources such as research databases, foundations, organizations, national libraries, and electronic communication networks, including the Internet.
Use knowledge of physics to evaluate articles in the popular press on
contemporary scientific topics
Utilize electronic networks to share information.
Model solutions to a range of problems in mathematics, science, and technology, using computer simulation software.
Use software to model and extend classroom and laboratory experiences,recognizing the differences between the model used for understanding and real-world behavior
Technology: Engineering Design
Key Idea 1:
(See Standard 1:ENGINEERING DESIGN)
Technology: Computer Technology
Key Idea 3:
Computers, as tools for design, modeling, information processing, communication, and system control, have greatly increased human productivity and knowledge.
Identify and describe the function of the major
components of a computer system.
Use the computer as a tool for generating and drawing
Control computerized devices and systems through
Model and simulate the design of a complex environment
by giving direct commands.
Assemble a computer system including keyboard, central processing unit and disc drives, mouse, modem, printer, and monitor
Use a computer system to connect to and access needed information from various Internet sites
Use computer hardware and software to draw and dimension prototypical designs
Use a computer as a modeling tool
Use a computer system to monitor and control external events and/or systems
Understand basic computer architecture and describe the function of computer subsystems and peripheral devices
Select a computer system that meets personal needs
Attach a modem to a computer system and telephone line, set up and use communications software, connect to various online networks, including the Internet, and access needed information using email, telnet, gopher, ftp, and web searches
Use computer-aided drawing and design (CADD) software to model realistic solutions to design problems
Develop an understanding of computer programming and attain some facility in writing computer programs
Technology: Technological Systems
Key Idea 4:
Technological systems are designed to achieve specific results and produce outputs, such as products, structures, services, energy, or other systems.
Identify familiar examples of technological systems that
are used to satisfy human needs and wants, and select
them on the basis of safety, cost, and function.
Assemble and operate simple technological systems,
including those with interconnecting mechanisms to
achieve different kinds of movement.
Understand that larger systems are made up of smaller
Select appropriate technological systems on the basis of safety, function, cost, ease of operation, and quality of post-purchase support
Assemble, operate, and explain the operation of simple open- and closed-loop electrical, electronic, mechanical, and pneumatic systems
Describe how subsystems and system elements (inputs, processes, outputs) interact within systems
Describe how system control requires sensing information, processing it, and making changes
Explain why making tradeoffs among characteristics, such as safety, function, cost, ease of operation, quality of post-purchase support, and environmental impact, is necessary when selecting systems for specific purposes
Model, explain, and analyze the performance of a feedback control system
Explain how complex technological systems involve the confluence of numerous other systems
Interconnectedness: Common Themes
Key Idea 1:
Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.
Observe and describe interactions among components of
Identify common things that can be considered to be
systems (e.g., a plant population, a subway system, human beings).
Describe the differences between dynamic systems and
describe the differences and similarities between
engineering systems, natural systems, and social systems.
Describe the differences between open- and closed-loop
Describe how the output from one part of a system
(which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts.
Explain how positive feedback and negative feedback
have opposite effects on system outputs.
Use an input-process-output-feedback diagram to model
and compare the behavior of natural and engineered
Define boundary conditions when doing systems analysis to determine what
influences a system and how it behaves.
Interconnectedness: Common Themes
Key Idea 2:
Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.
Analyze,construct,and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing
Discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing
Use different types of models, such as graphs,sketches,diagrams,and maps,to represent various aspects of the real world
Select an appropriate model to begin the search for answers or solutions to a question or problem.
Use models to study processes that cannot be studied directly (e.g., when the real
process is too slow, too fast, or too dangerous for direct observation).
Demonstrate the effectiveness of different models to represent the same thing and
the same model to represent different things.
Revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the
Collect information about the behavior of a system and use modeling tools to
represent the operation of the system.
Use observations of the behavior of a system to develop a model
Find and use mathematical models that behave in the same manner as the
processes under investigation.
Represent the behavior of real-world systems,using physical and mathematical
Compare predictions to actual observations, using test models.
Validate or reject a model based on collated experimental data
Predict the behavior of a system,using a model
Interdisciplinary Problem Solving
Key Idea 2:
Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.
When students participate in an extended,culminating mathematics,science,and
technology project, then students should:
Work effectively—Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group.
Gather and process information —Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.
Generate and analyze ideas — Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.
Observe common themes—Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.
Realize ideas—Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result.
Present results—Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.
Standard 2: Integrated Learning
Students will demonstrate how academic knowledge and skills are applied in the workplace and other settings.
Integrated learning encourages students to use essential academic concepts, facts, and procedures in applications related to life skills and the world of work. This approach allows students to see the usefulness of the concepts that they are being asked to learn and to understand their potential application in the world of work.
Identify academic knowledge and skills that are required
in specific occupations
Demonstrate the difference between the knowledge of a
skill and the ability to use the skill
Solve problems that call for applying academic
knowledge and skills.
Apply academic knowledge and skills using an interdisciplinary approach to demonstrate the relevance of how these skills are applied in work-related situations in local, state, national, and international communities
Solve problems that call for applying academic knowledge and skills
Use academic knowledge and skills in an occupational context, and demonstrate the application of these skills by using a variety of communication techniques (e.g., sign language, pictures, videos, reports, and technology).
Demonstrate the integration and application of academic
and occupational skills in their school learning, work,
and personal lives.
Use academic knowledge and skills in an occupational
context, and demonstrate the application of these skills by using a variety of communication techniques (e.g., sign language, pictures, videos, reports, and technology)
Research, interpret, analyze, and evaluate information and experiences as related to academic knowledge and technical skills when completing a career plan.
Standard 3a: Universal Foundation Skills
Students will demonstrate mastery of the foundation skills and competencies essential for success in the workplace.
Thinking skills lead to problem solving, experimenting, and focused observation and allow the application of knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations.
Use ideas and information to make decisions and solve
problems related to accomplishing a task.
Evaluate facts, solve advanced problems, and make
decisions by applying logic and reasoning skills.
Demonstrate the ability to organize and process
information and apply skills in new ways.
Technology is the process and product of human skill and ingenuity in designing and creating things from available resources to satisfy personal and societal needs and wants.
Demonstrate an awareness of the different types of
technology available to them and of how technology affects society.
Select and use appropriate technology to complete a task.
Apply their knowledge of technology to identify and solve
Using resources includes the application of financial and human factors, and the elements of time and materials to successfully carry out a planned activity.
Demonstrate an awareness of the knowledge, skills,
abilities, and resources needed to complete a task.
Understand the material, human, and financial resources
needed to accomplish tasks and activities.
Allocate resources to complete a task.
Systems skills include the understanding of and ability to work within natural and constructed systems.
Demonstrate understanding of how a system operates
and identify where to obtain information and resources within the system.
Understand the process of evaluating and modifying
systems within an organization.
Demonstrate an understanding of how systems
performance relates to the goals, resources, and functions of an organization.
Standard 3b: Career Majors
Students who choose a career major will acquire the career-specific technical knowledge/skills necessary to progress toward gainful employment, career advancement, and success in postsecondary programs.
Core, Specialized and Experiential
Foundation Development—Develop practical understanding of engineering
technology through reading, writing, sample problem solving, and employment experiences.
Technology—Demonstrate how all types of engineering/technical
organizations, equipment (hardware/software), and well-trained human resources assist and expedite the production/distribution of goods and services
Engineering/Industrial Processes—Demonstrate knowledge of planning, product
development and utilization, and evaluation that meets the needs of industry.
Your SketchUp file must be one continuous, solid object. The printer must be able to clearly distinguish between the inside and outside of the object it is printing. There cannot be holes or gaps in the model, because the 3D printer will not be able to tell what is inside the object and what is outside. There are tools that can help identify an close holes and gaps, but the majority of these areas should be found and closed within the original CAD model for best results.
In order to print your sketchup models, you'll have to convert your files to
is freeware and it works for Windows and Macintosh.
It allows you to export your SketchUp model as a DXF or STL triangular mesh or as DXF lines, which should be readable by most CAM software.
To use the plugin, download the skp_to_dxf.rb file to the SketchUp plugins folder on your computer:
On a Windows PC. If you have installed SketchUp on the C: drive then this folder will be at C:\program files\google\google sketchup [VERSION]\plugins.
On Mac OSX. The sketchup plugins folder is /Library/Application Support/Google SketchUp [VERSION]/SketchUp/Plugins
After copying this file, start SketchUp and you should now have an extra menu option (Export to DXF or STL) in the SketchUp Tools menu.
There are five export options, you want the last one:
DXF polyface mesh (recommended). This will give the most faithful reproduction of your original SketchUp model.
DXF polylines: exports the outlines of each face as a polyline, sometimes useful for CAM toolpaths.
DXF triangular mesh: breaks all the faces up into triangles
DXF lines. This option exports the edges in your model as lines.
triangles. The stereolithography triangular mesh format, useful for some CAM programs.
Just be aware that these options do not always work for every model.
A fix for some problems is the
SketchUp doesn't care if a surface is on the outside or inside of your model, but this can create problems in your
files when it comes time to printing.
If you see a darker face, CTRL+click on it and select
from the menu.
Just to be sure open the
in one of the programs that will fix the model.
Nathan Bromham and Konrad Shroeder's skp_to_dxf plugin quickly exports models into stl format but you'll need to specify Millimeters and STL every time. Brett Beauregard modified the plugin to eliminate the hassle.
Use this tool when you want to select part of your project - a line, a wall, a box, etc. If you select a line or wall with this tool then you can hit
on your keyboard to erase your selection.
This tool is not for moving things around! Use the move/copy tool if you need to move things around.
Use this tool to create 3D text. Click on the tool, fill in the options in the box that pops up, and then click on your project where you want to place the text.
You use this tool to draw arcs (curves). Click where you want to start the arc, then click where you want to end the arc. Move your mouse around to adjust to curve, and when you have it the way you want it, click again to complete the arc.
When pulling out the radius, be aware of the inference directions. It is easy to pull in the wrong direction.
You can type in the exact radius.
If you are pulling the radius out, SketchUp will indicate when you are a perfect half circle.
To create an arc that is tangent to two sides, click a point on one side, drag along the other side until the line turns magenta, then drag the radius until that turns magenta
You can also draw arcs in sequence. Start the next arc from the endpoint of the previous arc, as you pull away when the arc is blue it is tangent to the last arc.
Arcs are made up of 12 segments (default). You can change the number of segments by typing a number followed by s while dragging the radius.
Use this tool to reposition the location of your axes.
You use the circle tool to draw flat circles. You draw a circle by clicking and dragging outwards. You can specify the radius, by clicking, dragging and typing the the dimension of the radius, like 100mm, and then pressing the Enter key.
You can use the Circle Tool to draw a polygon. To make the circle a polygon, click and drag, then type the number of sides followed by s (5s) and hit the Enter key. The default number of sides of a circle is 24. When you extrude the shape drawn with the Circle tool, you will get a smooth cylinder:
When drawing another circle, you can reference the center of the first circle by hovering over the edges for a moment and then moving your cursor near the center. SketchUp will snap to the center point.
To get information on your circle or polygon, select the shape then CTRL+click and select
The dimension tool can be used to measure the length and width of a shape.
The eraser tool will remove lines from your project. Click on edges to remove them from your shapes.
that removing lines will sometimes remove walls! If you remove a bounding line for a wall, the wall will disappear.
Holding SHIFT and erasing will hide an edge.
To soften edges, hold CTRL or Option and drag over the edge. Softening renders the adjoining surfaces with a smooth gradient.
This tool is useful for making spheres, donuts and other irregular tunnel-shapes. Draw a curve, and then draw the shape you want to follow your curve. With the follow me tool, click and drag your shape along the curve.
Use this tool to draw irregular shapes for your project. Also handy when used with the follow me tool.
When using this tool, be careful not to cross over existing edges.
Draw to and from existing edges to properly divide surfaces.
Use this tool to draw a straight line anywhere in your project. Very helpful for dividing things like walls, or putting things into your project like doors.
To draw a line, select the tool, click and drag. The line you draw will be colored according to the axis you are drawing on.
To specify a length for your line, begin by clicking and dragging, but then type 100mm or 100m or 100" to get a line 100mm, 100 m or 100 inches long.
To divide the line. Select the line, then CTRL+ click to bring up the context menu. Here is where you can divide your line into segments.
Use this tool to "look around" in your project. Clicking and dragging with this tool create the equivalent effect of standing in place and looking up, down, left, right, etc.
Use this tool to move things around or to copy things.
The Move tool is the auto-fold and array tool as well
Use this tool to make duplicates of flat surfaces you have already created, just in a different scale (this is
helpful when creating walls).
To use this tool, click and drag on the surface of your shapes to create a similar shape on the surface of your existing object.
Use this tool to adjust the view of your project by rotating your position. Click and drag on your project to use this tool.
Use this tool to choose colors and to add color/texture to your walls and shapes. Click on this tool to bring up the colors palette. Choose a color, and then click on your objects to add the color or texture to your objects.
This tool will change your view of your world by moving you to the up/down/left/right, according to the direction you drag. Unlike the orbit tool, the pan tool will not rotate your view. Click and drag across your project to use this tool.
Use this tool to draw polygons other than squares and rectangles (such as octagons, triangles, etc).
Use this tool to reposition your camera. Click anywhere on your project, and the camera (your point of view) will move to that position.
Use this tool to go back to your previous view. For example, if you accidentally change your view, click this tool to go back to the view you just had.
This tool measures angles - use it to plan the creation of angles, or to measure angles you've already created.
Use this tool to give your shapes volume (ie, once you have a shape like a rectangle, use this tool to pull up on it to make a cube).
You can specify the distance you want to move my clicking, dragging and entering the number (100mm). Double-click on another surface to repeat the distance of the last Push/Pull.
To line up your extrusions, click once to start extruding a surface, then move the cursor to other geometry.This allows you to align to other geometry quickly.
You can Push/Pull a copy of the surface by pressing CTRL (WIN) or OPTION (MAC) and dragging.
Use this tool to draw a flat rectangle.Click once to start, drag.
To draw a rectangle with a specified width and length, start to draw the rect, then type in the dimensions separated by a comma (400mm,200mm).
The rotate tool rotates objects, walls, and components. It works best on FLAT surfaces!
To use the rotate tool, click on a (preferably) flat surface to select the object you want to rotate. Move your mouse away from where you just clicked and click again. To start the rotation, move your mouse around. When your object is properly rotated, click to stop the rotation.
The Rotate icon will orient itself to the the surface you hover over. Select the object, choose Rotate tool, click once to anchor the center point of the rotation.
Release the mouse, move cursor away and click to establish a reference point.
Move the cursor again to rotate the object based on the reference points. Click to finish.
Use this tool to change the size of one of your objects. Click on the object you want to scale, and drag on the corners to change its size. Hold down your
key to keep it in proportion.
Use this tool to measure how long something is in sketchup. Click at your starting point, and click again at your ending point. The measurement will show up in the bottom right hand corner of the window.
This tool creates little signs that are attached to your buildings and objects. Use it to display information about your project.
With the tool selected, click on an object and then type the text you want to be displayed.
For annotations, select the text tool, click on the geometry you want to annotate, then move the cursor away and click to place the text.You can edit the contents by double clicking inside the box. You can also modify the annotation by CTRL+clicking on the annotation.
Using this tool can create the perspective of walking. Click and hold down on your mouse to start using this tool. Keep your mouse held down and move your cursor left and right - it should look like you are turning. Move your mouse up and down to move forwards and backwards.
Use this tool to display your entire project. If you are ever zoomed in too far or need to reset your view, click on this tool to reposition your entire project.
Another type of zooming tool.
This tool zooms your view in and out. Click it once to zoom in a little bit, or click and drag over an area you want to zoom in on.
that you can also zoom in (and out!) by using the scroll wheel on your mouse of you have one.